The median home value in Palos Hills, IL is $238,800.
the county median home value of $285,000.
The national median home value is $308,980.
The average price of homes sold in Palos Hills, IL is $238,800.
Approximately 74% of Palos Hills homes are owned,
compared to 21% rented, while
5% are vacant.
Palos Hills real estate listings include condos, townhomes, and single family homes for sale.
Commercial properties are also available.
If you like to see a property, contact Palos Hills real estate agent to arrange a tour today!
Learn more about Palos Hills.
Beautifully updated 2 bed/1 bath condo in Palos Hills. This condo has a spacious kitchen, dining area, and large living room facing private wooded area. Unit features fresh paint, luxury vinyl floors throughout kitchen, dining room, & hallways, new carpet in living room & bedrooms, and huge updated bathroom with side-by-side washer dryer. The association pays heat, water, and refuse. Pets are welcome. Located close to parks, the Palos Hills community center, golf course, and shopping. Move in Ready!
LOCATION, LOCATION, LOCATION... DID I MENTION LOCATION?! HURRY OVER TO SEE THIS METICULOUSLY-MAINTAINED ONE OWNER 3 BEDROOM / 2 BATH SPACIOUS SPLIT LEVEL THAT IS PERFECTLY SITUATED WITH NO NEIGHBORS BEHIND OR ACROSS THE STREET! ENJOY THE GREEN SPACE THAT SURROUNDS THIS LOVELY HOME, WITH THE OPEN FIELD BEHIND AND THE BEAUTIFUL PLAYGROUND IN FRONT! AS YOU ARRIVE, YOU'LL IMMEDIATELY APPRECIATE THE A+ CURB APPEAL WHICH SETS THE STAGE FOR WHAT LIES AHEAD ... ENTER THROUGH THE NEWER FRONT DOOR, AND YOU'LL FIND AN IMMACULATELY CLEAN HOME WAITING FOR YOU! THE FOYER OVERLOOKS THE GENEROUS LIVING ROOM & DINING ROOM, WHICH BOASTS HARDWOOD FLOORS UNDER THE CARPERTING, FRESH PAINT & NEWER SILOUHETTE SHADES. THE DINING ROOM FEATURES A SLIDING GLASS DOOR TO THE HUGE FLORIDA ROOM, PROVIDING GREAT VIEWS & ACCESS TO THE FENCED YARD & SPACIOUS GREEN SPACE BEHIND THE HOME. THE AMPLE KITCHEN FEATURES CORIAN COUNTERTOPS AND STAINLESS STEEL APPLIANCES. UPSTAIRS, YOU'LL FIND 3 NICE-SIZED BEDROOMS, ALL WITH HARDWOOD FLOORS & NEWER WINDOWS. THE MAIN HALL BATH WAS RECENLTY UPDATED. THE LOWER LEVEL FAMILY ROOM IS HUGE & FEATURES A GAS FIREPLACE AND ACCESS TO THE GARAGE. THE LOWER LEVEL BATH WAS ALSO RECENTLY UPDATED WITH A GRANITE VANITY & TILE SHOWER WITH GLASS DOORS! THE LARGE LAUNDRY/ UTILITY ROOM IS SO VERSATILE, AND HAS A CONVENIENT SERVICE DOOR TO THE YARD. 2 CAR ATTACHED GARAGE! THIS HOME HAS BEEN LOVINGLY MAINTAINED OVER THE YEARS, AND MANY OF THE "BIG TICKET" ITEMS HAVE RECENTLY BEEN UPDATED ... EXTERIOR & INSIDE OF SCREENED PORCH WERE PAINTED 2022, ALL UPSTAIRS WINDOWS REPLACED 2019, REMAINING PELLA WINDOWS ARE ALSO NEWER, FIREPLACE GAS INSERT 2010, NEW FURNACE 2020, GUTTERS WITH LEAF FILTERS 2020. ROOF APPROXIMATELY 15 YEARS OLD. UPSTAIRS BATH 2018, WASHING MACHINE 2019. TOO MUCH TO LIST! DO NOT MISS YOUR CHANCE TO MAKE THIS SOLID, IMMACULATE ONE-OWNER HOME WITH NO NEIGHBORS ACROSS THE STREET OR BEHIND YOURS!!! THERE ARE HARDWOOD FLOORS UNDER THE CARPETS IN THE LIVING ROOM AND DINING ROOM, WHICH WILL BE SIMILAR TO THOSE RECENTLY EXPOSED IN THE UPSTAIRS BEDROOMS & HALLWAY.
Beautiful Split Level model residence located in sought after area of Palos Hills.. Open floor plan.. Beautifully updated throughout.. Gorgeous kitchen with 42" white cabinetry.. ceramic backsplashes.. quartz countertops.. big center island with butcher block countertop.. All stainless steel appliances.. Modern decor through out the house.. Many updates and upgrades has been done in the last 8 years - new flooring through out the house.. newer bathrooms.. appliances and more.. Roof replaced in 2019 ..HWH`23..enjector pump`23..sump pump`23.. UV air treatment system`22..NEST thermostat.. newer gutters and oversized down spouts.. Very private and relaxing back yard with mature trees.. patio.. fire pit.. playset.. Meticulously maintained and care for home is ready for a new owner.. This is a must see!!! Please exclude ring doorbell. No contingencies per seller.. Motivated seller will view all offers!!!
Sunday, 9/24 2:00-4:00PM
Welcome to this stunning move-in-ready home that boasts both style and functionality! This beautiful residence offers an abundance of space and modern features, making it the perfect place to call home. With a total of 6 bedrooms and 2 full bathrooms, this property has all the room you need for comfortable living. As you step into the upper level, you'll be greeted by three spacious bedrooms, each thoughtfully designed for comfort and relaxation. The full bathroom on this level features both a shower and a bathtub, providing options for your daily routines. Custom storage solutions throughout ensure that your belongings have a dedicated place, keeping your space tidy and organized. The main level offers an inviting open layout with a family/living room, dining area, and a beautifully appointed kitchen. The kitchen is a chef's dream with sleek stainless steel appliances and a convenient island that's perfect for meal preparation and casual dining. The high ceilings on this level create a sense of spaciousness, making it feel like one vast, cohesive living space. When you descend into the sub-basement, you'll discover an additional three bedrooms and another full bathroom. The additional basement offers extra space that can be customized to your needs, whether it's for a recreation room, home office, or workout area. Plus, there's a partially finished area with the potential for expansion and a half crawlspace for additional storage. This home has been meticulously remodeled and updated, ensuring it meets the highest standards of modern living. The brand-new roof provides peace of mind and longevity to the structure. You'll also appreciate the high-efficiency furnace that allows you to customize your comfort settings for heating and cooling. The seller is dedicated to making this home truly move-in ready and will have it freshly painted, ready for your personal touch. The location is ideal, offering convenience and access to great amenities, and it's situated within a highly-rated school district, making it a perfect choice for families. Don't miss the opportunity to make this fantastic property your new home. Schedule a viewing today and experience the comfort and luxury it has to offer. Your dream home awaits!
This is it! One story Ranch**Pristine grounds with newer landscaping , 2 Car garage **** Shed** Deck** Huge fenced yard**2 bedrooms main level *** possible additional bedrooms in full basement** Large eat-in kitchen ** Dining room that could be turned into another bedroom or home office if needed. Full bath*** Eat in kitchen** x- large living rm** Full walk out basement into a lovely manicured X- large yard. Recently sealed side driveway** Hardwood Floors under carpet with possible exception to 2nd bedroom. Close to I55 and 294 **Shopping and transportation nearby**Call and make appointment to see before it's gone**
Welcome to your dream home! This stunning 3-bedroom, 2-bathroom townhome is a true masterpiece, and the best part? No association fees, providing you with the freedom and independence of single-family living! Step inside and be greeted by the warmth of a two-sided fireplace, gracing both the dining and family rooms. The high ceilings on the main floor create an open and airy ambiance that's perfect for both entertaining and everyday living. With a spacious 2-car garage and a huge basement, you'll have ample room for storage and all your hobbies. This townhome is more than just a home; it's a lifestyle upgrade. The backyard is an absolute paradise. Imagine a private oasis, complete with a brand-new fence for your tranquility and security. This backyard is someone's dream come true - it's a vibrant and lush haven, bursting with colorful flowers that make you feel like you're in a tropical paradise. Conveniently located near highways, commuting is a breeze, and you'll have access to top-rated schools, ensuring an exceptional education for your family. Don't let this opportunity slip away. This townhome is more than just a property; it's an exceptional way of life. Come and experience the joy of calling this place home today!
Introducing a stunning new construction that exemplifies luxury and sophistication, this 4-bedroom, 4.5-bathroom masterpiece is a true testament to modern elegance. this home is designed for those who appreciate the finer things in life. The exterior of the home boasts a timeless and elegant architectural design. A combination of stately brick and tasteful stone accents create a striking curb appeal. A meticulously landscaped front yard welcomes you. As you step inside, you are immediately greeted by the expansive open floor plan that seamlessly connects the living, dining, and kitchen areas. The hardwood flooring, with its rich and timeless finish. Flows effortlessly from room to room, Unifying the entire space. The kitchen is a chef's dream, boasting stainless steel appliances, quartz countertops, and custom cabinetry. The island, serves as a centerpiece for both meal preparation and casual dining. It provides ample space for bar stools, encouraging guests to engage with the cook and enjoy the culinary experience.. A walk-in pantry offers ample storage space. The hardwood flooring continues into the bedrooms, creating a warm and cozy atmosphere. Large windows in each bedroom allow for plenty of natural light, and spacious closets offer generous storage. All bathrooms feature luxury finishes, modern designs with a mix of tile and stone accents. Spa-like fixtures, such as rainfall showerheads and deep soaking tubs. providing an exceptional living experience.
For rent Palos Hills 1 bedroom condo on 2nd floor with private balcony*Heat*cooking gas*water*parking*exterior maintenance* lawn care*snow removal*common insurance is included in the monthly rent*Clean *freshly painted*Sliding door to balcony overlooking courtyard*Tenant pays electricity*Coin laundry in the building *
Nestled in the heart of the highly sought-after Palos Hills community, this unique split-level home offers an exceptional blend of comfort, style, and outdoor serenity. Situated in proximity to lush forest preserves and picturesque hiking trails, this residence is a nature lover's dream. Boasting three spacious bedrooms, this home provides ample living space for a growing family or those who value room to spread out. Two private balconies off the bedrooms allow you to enjoy your morning coffee while taking in the serene surroundings. The addition of a sub-basement adds valuable storage space or the potential for customization to suit your specific needs, be it a home gym, a hobby room, or a home office. Gleaming hardwood floors throughout the main living areas create an inviting and warm ambiance. The open floor plan enhances the flow of natural light, making the space feel even more inviting. A side-load attached garage offers both convenience and security for your vehicles while maintaining the clean lines of the home's exterior. Step into the fully fenced backyard, and you'll find your own private oasis. This outdoor space is perfect for entertaining, gardening, or simply unwinding in a tranquil setting.
Sunday, 9/24 1:00-3:00PM
Discover your dream home in this desirable Timbers subdivision !This newly remodeled condominium boasts 3 inviting bedrooms and 2 pristine bathrooms. With a modern design , this residence offers a perfect blend of style and comfort. Exquisite modern style kitchen is a chef's dream .Adorned with Italian marble flooring ,stainless steel appliances ,quartz countertops ,and a captivating coordinating backsplash, this kitchen is a masterpiece.Situated in the prime location this property backs onto forest preserve and offers picturesque pond views in the front .Step into a world of convenience with nearby amenities ,including a clubhouse ,tennis court ,sparkling pool ,and lush parks .This is the epitome of suburban living at its finest. Don't miss out on this exceptional opportunity!!!!! Well run association with great reserves !!FHA ,VA & Conventional loans welcome
Move in Ready, Excellent Location right by Moraine valley College. This Beautiful & Bright 2 bedrooms & 2 full bathrooms, located at 3 floor facing west with warm western sun, cozy & spacious 1,500 square feet condo with open concept of living room and formal dinning room. Roomy Prime Master bedroom ensuite with it's own separate shower and vanity sink, huge walking closet. The 2nd bedroom with big closet and 2nd bathroom offer jacuzzi tub with big closet with extra storage room. Ample separate kitchen with brand new electric stove, stainless steel refrigerator and dishwasher, exhaust vent hoop out. In unit laundry washer and dryer with sink, 5 years old HVAC. Fresh New Paint and Laminate flooring throughout Kitchen, dinning room, living room w/Fireplace. Huge outlook balcony from living room offer nice green scenery view is so relax and the cool breeze from spring till fall. Unit offer ONE indoor heated garage parking and tons of outdoor parking available. Great school district, Easy to hoop on I-294 and I-55, many wonderful trails, Swallow Cliff Woods. Looking for credit score 740 & up and 3X proof of income. NO PETS PLEASE !!!
Nice 2 Story, 3 Bdrm, 2 1/2 Bath End Unit Townhome w/2 Car Attached Garage. Spacious Home with a Large Eat in Kitchen, Fam Rm w/Frplc, Formal Dining Rm, Large Vaulted Liv Rm & a Lndry Rm on 1st Floor. Upstairs : Large Master Bedroom with Dressing Area, Whirlpool Tub, Seperate Shower & Walk In Closet. Also a Large Finished Storage Rm between a Wall and Roof Line. Dual Heat & A/C with One Set of Units about 5 years old. New Stove Top, 3 Skylights replaced about 5 Years. Newer Fam Rm Carpet and other Updates. Clean Move In Condition
Welcome home to this perfect fixer-upper in the heart of Palos Hills. This spacious END UNIT condo is located on the second floor with Western exposure. The wood burning fireplace is a key feature to keep you warm during the harsh winter months. The master bedroom suite includes a walk-in closet and a full bath. Other unit amenities include: full size laundry room, screened in balcony with storage closet, updated HVAC system, community in-ground pool, and the clubhouse.The location has quick access to nearby sport complexes, forest preserves, parks districts, shopping centers, and various restaurants.Don't miss the opportunity to view this special property today!
PRICE REDUCTION! SELLER MOTIVATED! ONE OF A KIND CUSTOM BUILT HOME IN PALOS HILLS. THE CURRENT HOME OWNER HAD EXEPTIONAL STANDARTS AND USED QUALITY MATERIALS WHEN HE BUILT THIS HOME. ATTENTION TO DETAIL MAKES THIS HOME UNIQUE. 4 BEDROOM, 3 BATHROOM, 9FT TRAY CEILINGS HOME IS READY FOR NEW OWNERS. THIS BEAUTY OFFERS 3500 SQ FT OF LIVING SPACE, OPEN FLOOR PLAN, MODERN CUSTOM KITCHEN, GRANITE COUNTER TOPS, STAINLESS STEEL APPLIANCES AND OVER-SIZED ISLAND. LARGE BEDROOMS WITH WALK-IN CLOSETS IN ALL BEDROOMS, CUSTOM STONE FIREPLACE IN FAMILY ROOM TO KEEP YOU WARM IN THE WINTER!!!UNFINISHED BASEMENT WAITNG FOR YOUR IDEAS AND FINAL TOUCHES ( ROUGHED-IN PLUMBING FOR THE FOURTH BATH IN A BASEMENT). MULTIPLE ELECTRIC CAR CHARGING STATIONS INSTALLED! DON'T WAIT - SCHEDULE A PRIVATE SHOWING TODAY!!!
This move-in-ready, fully furnished Condo unit has warranty coverage that gives you *Less Stress,*PCO-Predictable Cost Ownership, and *Peace of Mind. Remodel/upgrades, new AC, garage, windows, and doors in 2020/2022. The unit has new sliding doors leading to the spacious balcony that opens to the beautifully landscaped front yard. The 2nd bedroom has a pool view. Cats allowed. 5 min. away from 3 Metro train locations. 5 min from Hwy- 294, and I-55. Great schools, with plenty of parks, fishing, canoeing, forest preserves and more. Hurry before it's gone!!! HOA- $324.56 includes heat/gas, water, and covers garage electrical-pool, snow, landscaping, % of the balcony, and more. The unit owner is responsible for ComEd only. Absolutely nothing to do but move in!!!
BEAUTIFUL APARTMENT READY FOR IMMEDIATE OCCUPANCY! NEWER KITCHEN WITH OPENS TO LARGE KITCHEN AND DINING ROOM. VERY LARGE PRIVATE PATIO OFF OF DINING ROOM-GREAT FOR ENTERTAINING AND GRILLING!! NEWER BATH WITH TUB. BEAUTIFUL HARDWOOD FLOORS THROUGHOUT. CUSTOM BLINDS THROUGHOUT. UNBELIEVABLE VIEWS FROM LARGE PICTURE WINDOW FACING WEST, OVERLOOKING FOOTBALL FIELD, TENNIS COURTS AND VAST FOREST PRESERVE. BEAUTIFUL SUNSETS! LAUNDRY FACILITIES IN BUILDING. TENNIS COURTS ACROSS STREET. HEAT & HOT WATER INCLUDED. PARKING SPACE INCLUDED. PRIVATE STORAGE ROOM IN BASEMENT. QUIET BUILDING AND QUIET LOCATION. CLOSE TO PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION (METRA), RESTAURANTS, SHOPPING & HIGHWAYS. ***MINIMUM 680 CREDIT SCORE REQUIRED***
This Riviera Townhome Offers 3 Floors of Living Space~ Living Room w/ Wet Bar ~ 2 Bedrooms~Full Basement with Bar for Entertaining ~2 Dining Rooms ~ TV/ Gaming Cove off dining Room near Kitchen Seperate Galley kitchen Upstairs~ 2 Bathrooms ~ Full Basement Seperate Laundry Room and Work Bench Room~ Balcony Off the Upstairs Dining Room ~ Patio Right off The Living Room on Main Level~ Gas Fireplace- Swimming Pool & Clubhouse~Private Park & Tennis Courts. Walk to The Moraine Valley College Outdoor Walking Path & Indoor Fitness Center
Outdoor parking, 1 of 30 outdoor Garage Units at Riviera Regal II Condominiums
Very rare opportunity! Welcome home to this fully renovated condo in The Timbers Subdivision of Palos Hills. This 3 bedroom,2 bathroom property features an open floor plan, you will be amazed by the stunning brand new kitchen cabinets along with new stainless steel appliances, white tile backsplash, a pot filler faucet, beautiful quartz countertop, new luxury vinyl plank flooring and recessed ceiling lighting throughout the unit, fresh paint, electric fireplace in living room and new windows in all of the bedrooms. Both, the hallway and master bedroom, bathrooms have been refinished with nice modern touches. This property also has a convenient washer and dryer in unit, central heating and cooling, attached garage parking with storage and outdoor private patio. This community includes clubhouse, pool, playground, tennis court, walking path around pond with fountain. Pet Friendly, No weight limitations. Furnace 2014, water heater 2018.
Welcome to this stunning 4-bedroom, 3-bathroom house in Palos Hills. This fully remodeled home offers modern living at its finest. As you enter, you'll immediately notice the beautiful hardwood floors that flow throughout the main level. The open-concept living space is illuminated by natural light and features white shaker cabinets, granite countertops, and stainless steel appliances. The spacious kitchen boasts a huge island, perfect for both meal preparation and dining. The contemporary design continues into the full finished basement, providing additional space for various activities and possible 5th bedroom. With 3 full bathrooms, everyone in the household can enjoy convenience and privacy. The entire house is thoughtfully designed with modern finishes that create an inviting and comfortable atmosphere. Outdoor amenities include a 2-car detached garage, large driveway, two sheds for storage, and oversized backyard. Newly refinished hardwood floors, new electric, new plumbing and endless other upgrades including HVAC! Great location! Minutes away from shopping, expressway, restaurants and more. A must see! Schedule your showing today!
Beautiful home nestled in a peaceful area located on a quiet cul- de- sac With vaulted ceilings, skylights, and marble flooring & hardwood flooring it's offers an ambiance of elegance and sophistication. The finished basement includes an extra bedroom and bathroom, adding to its appeal. The house has been thoughtfully refreshed with a recent paint job, and the hardwood flooring has been meticulously redone. The kitchen is adorned with granite countertops, and you'll find modern appliances, including a fridge and stove from 2023, as well as a 2023 hot water tank. Step outside to the beautifully pool with designed gazebo, added in 2023, and enjoy the serene surroundings. The roof was replaced in 2020, furnace 2020 ensuring your peace of mind. This is more than a house; it's a retreat. Don't miss the chance to make it yours!"
GORGEOUS HOME!! MODIFIED, CUSTOMIZED, EXPANDED SPLIT LEVEL !!! THE MOVE-IN-READY HOME IS LOCATED IN A QUIET LOCATION. IDEAL LAYOUT. 4 GENEROUS SIZED BEDROOMS AND 2 FULL BATH. BEAUTIFULLY AND PROFESSIONALLY RENOVATED. BRAND NEW WHITE GLOSS KITCHEN CABINETS WITH AMPLE STORAGE, BAUTIFUL GRANITE COUNTERTOPS, BRAND NEW BLACK SS APPLIANCES. ENJOY THE NEW RECESSED LIGHTS AND NEW LIGHT FIXTURES THROUGHOUT. BRAND NEW DOORS, MOULDINGS AND TRIMS. MAIN AND SECOND FLOOR HAS BEAUTIFULL REFINISHED HARDWOOD FLOORS, LOWER LEVEL FAMILY ROOM FEATURES NEW LUXURY VINYL FLOORING. BRAND NEW WINDOWS (2022) WATER HEATER (2020), NEW WASHER AND DRYER. FRESHLY PAINTED WALLS ALL AROUND THE ENTIRE HOUSE. LOOKS LIKE A MODEL SHOWCASE! AMAZING COMPLETELY UPDATED 2 FULL BATHROOMS - ENJOY YOUR OWN SPA, HUGE WALK IN SHOWER. BRAND NEW GARAGE DOOR. ROOF (2020). SIDING (2020). NEW ATTIC INSULATION. GREAT PRIVATE YARD WITH PATIO AND NEW FENCE. TOO MANY NEW ITEMS TO LIST........ THIS BEAUTY IS LOADED WITH FEATURES AND UPGRADES SURE TO PLEASE! DON'T MISS THIS ONE! COME SEE IT!!!
This is your opportunity to call this charming townhouse your "HOME"! 3 bedrooms, 2 full baths with an open floor plan, and a partial basement renovated to add a bonus room! Home features, recently renovated upstairs bathroom, downstairs bathroom converted from a half to full bath. Brand new counter kitchen countertops, fridge, microwave, and dishwasher are all 3 years old. Central Air is 4 years old. Large primary bedroom, two walk-in closets, with access to the porch. Spacious second bedroom with two large closets. The bonus room on the lower level is newly renovated and great flexible use of space for what you see fit! Additional highlights are the attached 1 car garage, close distance to all essential stores, great school district, affordable property taxes, and walking distance to Stagg High School. Located in The Riveria in Palos / Red Brick Management includes an outdoor private pool, playground, acres of common areas, tennis courts, basketball court, and softball/ baseball field. The HOA provides landscaping, garbage, lawn care, spraying, and snow removal.
LOVE IS... security, beauty and comfort for your family. it's all here in this beautiful custom home with seven large bedrooms, five and a half bathrooms, top of the line finishes, special hardwood floors, 2 fireplaces, high efficiency furnace and 75 gal. water tank. S/S appliances. Anderson windows. Maintenance free deck with aluminum railing. Fire sprinklers. English basement with related living option . Second floor laundry and option of second laundry in basement. Master bedroom balcony. First floor bedroom with full bath. Three car garage. Lawn sprinklers. Perfect home for an expanding family.
This new construction home boasts a contemporary architectural design, combination of brick, stone, and siding. It features large windows that allow ample natural light to enter the house. The home features a well-thought-out layout, maximizing space and functionality. It offers an open-concept floor plan, allowing for seamless flow between rooms and creating a spacious and airy ambiance. The interior is designed with attention to detail, incorporating high-quality finishes and modern features throughout. The open-concept kitchen is a chef's delight, featuring modern appliances, ample storage cabinets, a large island with a breakfast bar, and high-end countertops. The kitchen seamlessly flows into the breakfast nook, which overlooks the backyard. The family room, situated next to the kitchen, creates a comfortable space for relaxation and entertainment. It offers a fireplace. As you ascend the stairs, you reach the upper level, where the master suite is a luxurious retreat, featuring a spacious bedroom, a walk-in closet, and an en-suite bathroom. The en-suite bathroom offers a soaking tub, a separate shower, dual vanity sinks, and elegant fixtures. The remaining four bedrooms on this level are generously sized. The walk-out basement adds valuable living space and flexibility to the home with a roughed in bath 9 feet ceiling. It features large windows and direct access to the backyard. This area can be customized to fit your needs and preferences. heated garage Overall, this new construction home offers a blend of modern design, functional layout, and high-quality finishes. It provides the comfort, convenience, and flexibility desired in a contemporary living space, while also incorporating elements of style and sophistication.